DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SYMPHONY AND A SONATA ALLEGRO
Koch speaks also about ”sufficient variety of phrases, or enough modification and adaption of the main ideas, joined with connective phrases, phrases made up of fragmented ideas, or subsidiary ideas“. He mentions in connection with the symphonic Allegro also by passing the concepts of a Cantabel Satz and a singbarer Satz, as it was obvious that the hectic motion of a symphony had to be calmed down for a while after a pause or the middle caesura.
It is not self-evident to put on the beginning section of the dominant key area the label of a subsidiary theme, becausethe ”singing phrase” (cantabler Satz) is the concept Koch mentioned. It is even dangerous to use the term ”subsidiary theme”, as it automatically implies thematic contrast, which would be just wrong, when the contrast would be fixed locally. This would veil the idea of Koch, as there is only one theme, der Hauptsatz, and other melodic ideas are either derived from it or are forming diversions with it. Koch and his contemporaries did not have any conception of contrast of themes, only contrast as a principle of composing the whole discourse.
An even if the cantabler Satz appears often in a symphonic allegro movement, it is not automatically to be applicated also to the analysis of a (piano) sonata’s first movement analysis, as a clavier sonata allegro does ad often open with a cantabile or a ”singing allegro” Hauptsatz, which means there is no need to have a contrast (thematic or topoic), when thr dominant key has been reached.
ANTON EBERL (1765–1807): SYMPHONY IN E FLAT, OP. 33 (1803), 1. MOV. = (1)–(3)–(4)–(3)–(4)–(4) (Koch)
Sinfonia on traagis-sankarillisessa ekspressiivinen genressä, joka kirkastuu 2. osan surumarssin C-duuri-vaiheen keveän marssin, 3. osan Trio II:n alla zingarese -niekkujen ja 4. osan kontratanssin ansiosta.
BEETHOVEN: EROICA-SINFONIAN 1. OSAN 1. REPRIISI
FRIEDRICH ERNST FESCA (1789–1826): SYMPHONY 2 D op. 18 (ca. 1817), 1st Mov. Exposition (VM)
Intro Poco Adagio
-again Beethoven’s ”two principles”!
-1) ”PRINCIPLE 1”: pastoral and hymn-like topos, violoncelli ganz wie bei Brahms some 60 year later!
-2) ”PRINCIPLE 2”: when V reached, the active, dramatic-tragic topos, with a ”march in 3/4 time” and enigmatic trill –> goes to V6/5–i in vi degree = F# minor key!!; at the end the N6 chord, followed by anguished recitative and two dimished seventh chords on C# and G#, and D minor darkening
Allegro molto assai: 1st reprise
(1) <— meaning Koch’s IS’s (= interpunctional sections)
-1st reprise is basically following the Kochian model I–V/V–V, with last and fourth IS (= interpunctional section), multiplied and the second IS (= V) omitted: Kochs’ IS (1) (3) (4)
-Hauptsatz = Hauptempfindung = Hauptcharakter = Thema: it is a periode with two unequal halves:
1) mm. 35–45 (= 11 mm. = 3 + 3 + 5 mm = free, unsymmetrical Vordersatz),
2) mm. 46–53 (= 8 mm. = 4 + 4 mm = symmetrical Nachsatz)
-mm. 52–53: I:PAC = Koch: (1) = I
-TOPOI: Hauptsatz is formed by c.f.-like beginning and scherzando/buffa-like continuation
-modulation starts elliptically at m. 53 with the scherzando/buffa topos & and active ”principle 2”: with its 10th measure it reaches the V/V at m. 62; V/V is prolonged (”dominant lock”) with two phrases/Sätze: 6 mm. first (mm. 62–67), again elliptically new woodwind music enters at m. 67 and ends at m. 76 – and at the same time we reach a V:IAP , which is a surprise, as the V/V (mm. 62–70) is continued by the lamenting oboe melody (”principle 1”), which brings the modulation phase suddendly to A major (V), although with imperfect cadence; this V:IAP is not the V or IS4 proper, meant by Koch
-as the first and fake arrival on V (= IS4) was ”too early” (m. 76) and weak too (V:IAC), there follow several V:PAC phases, and we have to decide where is the most convincing DDA=EEC
-the PACs are:
1) at m. 91, preceded by a neatly symmetrical period with 8-measures’ Vorder- and Nachsatz; topos: singing with sighs/sospiri,
2) at m. 100, preceded by scherzando topos and an intermediate cadence on vi (F# minor) at mm. 97–98
3) at m. 110, preceded by the active buffa 1/8-note figuration, twice (5 + 6 mm.) – this is perhaps my choice for DDA=EEC
4) at m. 120, preceded by new vigor with 1/16-note scales & cadential buffa figuration
Thus we have: m. 35 =I = beginning of the fast phase
I (V) omitted V/V V V V V
53 62–70(–76) 91 100 110 120
I:PAC MC V:PAC V:PAC V:PAC V:PAC
-again the ”first half” of the ”erste Hauptperiode”, e.g. the key of tonic takes 41 measures (mm. 35–75), whereas the ”second half”, that of the dominant key (”Tonart der Quinte”) which according to Koch is usually longer than the first one, takes 45 measures (mm. 76–120) and contains many confimative dominant key cadences (V:PAC) – however, the difference between the lenghts is not significant
-Koch: Das erste Allegro der Sinfonie […] wendet sich gemeiniglich schon mit dem dritten melodischen Theile die Modulation nach der Tonart der Quinte (in der weichen Tonart auch nach der Terz) hin, in welcher die übrigen vorgetragen werden, weil die zweyte und größere Hälfte dieses ersten Perioden (my emphasis) besonders dieser Tonart gewidmet ist.”
-what is interesting, is that Fesca is using unsymmetrical phrases (Sätze), and thus periods, and many ellipses, which is characteristic to symphonies, as according to Koch ”in der Sonate die melodischen Theile nicht so fortströmend zusammen hängen, wie in der Sinfonie”
-however, the most symmetrical period is what comes after V/V (mm. 76–91), 8 + 8 mm., on the basis of which Koch’s ”cantabler Satz” (singing theme, derived from the ”principle 1”) is a proper decription
-by the way: in symohonies, the contrast after V/V (”MC”) is usually bigger than in a sonate, as the symphony is ”mehr fortströmend” and needs thus more relax after the beginning, whereas in a sonata there are clearer dividing points, as in the sonate ” die melodischen Theile […] öfterer durch förmliche Absätze getrennt […] sind.”
-great music again, with interesting concerto-like 1st violin part
-I wonder, whether we should again start usin Riemann’s markings concerning the Satz/phrase syntax within a period, the unit closing with cadence or half-cadence
-for instance: ellipsis could be marked like this: 1234(=1)2345, if with the 4th measure of the precedent phrase the next phrase starts elliptically (Koch says: ”Tacterstickung”), and if the cadence is reached only with the 5th measure of the consequent phrase, and thus the period ends
2nd half instead of the 2nd reprise
-The development is now extensive, but with plenty of contrapunctal elaboration, although principally based on rhythmic imitation
-the harmonic goal, vi degree = B minor is reached immediately, and later again-
-B minor itself is resulted from the strining b1 tone already in the main theme/Hauptsatz
-the main theme is reached on II degree, = V/V of the main key in mm. 158ff., then on the flattened VII degree = C major in mm. 176ff., on the dominant of the ii degree = E minor in mm. 185ff.
-the harmonic goal of the Durchfuehrung is reached in mm.190ff., where we come tp the dominant lock of the B minor
-then the surprise: the recap beginning is reharmonized with the goal key B minor in mm. 200, which can be compared with the mm. 35ff, and only the second half of the Hauptsatx reinstalls the tonin in mm. 211ff.
-then the recap means basically repeating the 1st reprise, with some reorganizations
-the main issue is that in mm. 222ff. we reach the subdominant transposition of mm. 62ff, which means we are on the road back to home
-so is too the ”subsidiary group”, starting with m. 236ff.
-mm. 252ff. the music corresponds mm. 100ff.; however, instead of arriving at the EEC in tonic, as in dominant key in the exposition, we have a fermata on V6/5, and the codetta from mm. 276ff. with its firework
-so: the strong B tone in the Hauptsatz results in the harmonic most distant goal being B minor = vi degree and bring the surprising recap as well on the B minor – which is Beethovenian technique! and Schubertian as well!
Now we have:
34 mm. = Intro
86 mm. =1st reprise
80 mm. = 1st half of the 2nd part = Durchfuehrung
76 mm. = 2nd half of the 2nd part = Recapitulation
32 mm. = Coda
in which the relationships between the phases are more like those by Beethoven, e.g. Eroica, although Eroica takes double as much time.